Hand woven carpet history
Knowledge about hand woven carpet
Hand woven carpet history
According to Shahnameh Ferdowsi stories, beginning of weaving carpet, spin and weave go back to Tahmures age means Pishdadian age. Tabari history describes about kind of carpets that were woven with wool and animal fur in this age.
The more oldest sign about weaving carpet art go back to Bronze age, this sign is a weaving carpet’s knife that was found in Turkmenistan and north of Iran graves. In burnt city (Sistan plain – east south Iran) were obtained mat and fabric mugs and weaving instruments that belong to 2500-2800 before birth of Christ. In Achaemenid age quotations from Xenophon, Sardis ancient city honored to carpet with knots weaving that was decorated with border design, men bodies and legendary griffins.
Arrangement of the most carpet ancient that was discovered: relief carpet in Ninawa palace, Pazyryk carpet from fifth tomb’s Scythian peoples. Ghomes fragment mug (Sasanian age), Anatoly carpet (13-14CE)
From Parthian age, can point to Chinese Lokan’s tomb carpet, according researcher ideas that’s wool is from Caucasus (Caucasus belonged to Iran in this age). From Sasanian age Ghomes fragment mug and Baharestan historical carpet that have jewelry sign on it expanded in Ctesiphon palace salon public bar, after Arabic people attack was picked up as booty.
Carpet design was changed after influence Islam in Hijri first century, decoration mug was forbidden because of Islam in this duration of time, but in Abbasi’s caliphs era luxury living and having luxury palace was common, weaving carpet with decoration was started too. Fragment of carpet From Seljuq age with geometrical patterns keep in Oghaf museum of Istanbul.
Ibn Battuta travel account from ll-khanate age pointed to massive and expensive carpets in Ghazan palace and imam Reza cemetery’s carpets in Mashhad. In Timurid age was talked about great weaving carpet working shop in Sabzevar were used Miniature in carpet plans by distinguished designer.
shah ismail: weaving carpet working place developed in Tabriz.
Shah Tahmasp: Iranian carpet has reached perfection in beauty and elegance’s weave. Ardabil historical masterpiece carpet was woven in this period.
shah Abbas: in Isfahan and other cities opened weaving carpet working place and ordered every association weave carpet on own themselves method because he wanted kept original art in weaving carpet. For first time in Safavid age waving carpet transferred from tribe and village to city. precious carpet in this age was estimated more than 3000 fragments.
In Afsharid age because of repetitive wars reduced production decoration carpet. From Karim khan zand age remained two fragments rugs. One of them with date was ordered by Kirman’s governer and other one was woven maybe in Shiraz.
Europe and unite state in Qajar age increased buying carpet from Iran. Carpet multi- nationality company was stablished for encouragement Iranian to export in outwardly but in reality it was for colonialist countries profits.
Two books with carpet subject was wrote: colorful carpet trading book with ink color and another book is Yadegar hassan from religion effect.
In Pahlavi era weaving carpet working place was systematized and health care was important, the government cared about these working places. machine made carpet machine was imported to Iran, after dissolution Iran carpet institute Iranian carpet company and handicraft center was stablished. Iran carpet fans association and carpet museum were formed. After Islamic revolution victory on based administrative supreme council (Iran carpet national center) approved in the1382h was stablished for organizing and singlehanded quantity and quality situation producing and supply hand woven carpet. Target of this center is presentation precious place of Iranian handwoven carpet, protect practitioners, weavers of carpet and developing export this valuable production.
Design and plan
Shah Abbasi design
Shah Abbasi designs are on based flower and special bushes, that name is shah Abbasi’s flowers. These flowers are with arabesque, khataies, and other current designs have created main design in border and context of carpet. Shah Abbasi designs are different that some of them are: Toranj and lachak shah Abbasi, Tasarofi shah Abbasi, Afshan shah Abbasi, lock of hair(Toreyi) shah Abbasi
Toranj and Lachak shah Abbasi
This design had been for leather’s cover and old books decoration for long time ago, it is very originality.
Carpet that was woven with this design have middle Toranj, it is formed like circle and oval(almond-shaped), two head of Toranj are sourrended in up and down and sometimes in sides also. Four angle middle background and context of carpet decorate with similar four plans that name is Lachak, lachak is quarter of middle Toranj.
Part of shah Abbasi designs don’t have four angle that says shah Abbasi with Toranj.
Shah Abbasi Afshan
Shah abbasi Afshan design don’t have middle Toranj and four angle lachaks. entire of context carpet cover with leaf, arabesque and Khatayi flower, with circular and arcuate lines.
Lock of hair shah Abbasi
This design has niceness Toranj in middle of it. This design option is a lock of hair that form and around all of context mug like mountain range.
On other hand in these designs, lachak against usual don’t formed quarter of Toranj but on the contrary surrounded all context of carpet like lock hair.
Possession shah Abbasi
This design was created with possession in shah Abbasi design, for example remove lachaks and use half of Toranj in carpet context ribs, take frame and decoration tablet, as mirror in ribs, changing like that including innovation is created in that design, its repute possession.
The collection of special decoration shapes like open mouth snake is Arabesque in carpet designing.
The root of Arabesque word is Arab that means bud. One other group of people believe the root of Arabesque word is Islam but there was Arabesque design in Iran before Islam.
More Arabesque design use in center of Iran like Isfahan.
Arabesque designs are various like Azhdari mouth Arabesque, snake Arabesque and broken Arabesque.
Flower vase design
In this design, flower vase shaped decorate with flower’s branches that (sometimes is small in parallel row and sometimes is large as a unite) cover all of context carpet.
Flower vase design is very famous in Qom, Tabriz, Kashan, Abadeh and Kurdistan. There are many kinds: alter flower vase, Zalol sultan flower vase, Haj Khanomi flower vase.
Zalol Soltan flower vase
Zalol Soltan flower vase is one design that has two sides of it instead of flower vase handle use bird pattern, from flower vase context rise many flowers also.
Haj Khanoomi flower vase
This is a flower vase design that more common in Qashqai tribe and in shiraz, it name is manciple pattern in Shiraz, every mug that have this design name Kashkoli manciple. One of important option of this design follow proportion and size, similar dimension of designs and continuity in all of this design exactly.
Haj Khanoomi was taked from name of Haj Khanoom jahan Ara bibi that is precious try in revive Qashqai weaving carpet art.
There are many different opinions about root of bush design. This design similar to Zoroastrianism fire holly flame, pine cone, water drop, cypress tree, palm branch, passion bird and ……….there are different views about origin of bush design. There are bush patterns in carpet design in different sizes and shapes. Sometimes bush pattern is large enough that there are several bushes enough for cover surface of carpet but there is in small size in parallel row in context of carpet or follow each other in border in more times. Sometimes use in broken style.
Bush design usually seen in Kirman, Sanandezh, Hamedan, Kashan, Saraband and Qom, the more famous of these designs are: Sarabandi bush, Isfahan Qalamkar bush, Kurdistan bush and eight leaf.
Mixed fish design ( Harati)
First sample of this design was reached in Harat, this design name is Harati. Mixed fish design is formed of two patterns fish and a flower as one is between. In some area like Iran west, middle’s flower is put up in middle of one oval and four fishes or four curved leaf like fish waist curved are woven in outer side of four rib’s oval. Center province, Khorasan, Hamedan, Birjand and Sanandezh are the main place for mixed fish design.
Tree and planet patterns because of being holly in Iranian views always Iranian weaver pay attention to this degin. Tree pattern is woven in many regions of Iran these days but the experts say the root of this design is in Ravar Kirman. Tree design divided to several patterns on using element base, like as animal design, cypress tree, with Toranj design, waterscape, all cover, Lachak and Toranj.
Tree with animal
In this design there are birds in among of trees branches and leaf, the down of tree there are animals that are grazing and relaxing.
Hunting ground tree
If in context and border of tree design, there are hunters that riding horse and on foot those are hunting that tree design is named hunting ground tree.
growing vegetables tree
If there is a blue pool in middle of carpet, this pattern name will be growing vegetables or waterscape. In this design don’t draw whole shape of tree’s branches. flower stalks and branches are that cover main elements and pattern. Growing vegetables tree design is one of famous design circa 60 years ago that took from Raver Kirman to Iranian carpet beauty designs, these days Kashan weaver, Isfahan, Tabriz, Qom, Tehran like weaving this design.
Many European people believe tree design in mug is a good chance, they think this pattern is sign of continuously life, well-being, fortunate.
Pattern or small plan is repeated in different lengthwise and widthwise cardinal points in carpet context it is named layout. The more important layout designs are Varamin layout (Mina Khani), Arabesque layout, bracelet layout (sugar lion), tablet layout, deer antler with animal layout.
Mina khani Layout
The more ancient of this design was seen in late year design in Kurdistan, Bijar and Savej Bolaq.
Mina khani design is one of uniform pattern that cover all over the context of mug, in many reigns of Iran was woven like Hamedan, Chaharmahan Bakhtiyari, Haris and Qaenat.
In this design, patterns and Arabesque lines attach each other and cover all over of carpet context with synthetic flowers like Hatayi or Shah Abbasi.
This design’s name come from decoration bracelet and belts synthetic. Iranian give them to athlete and gladiator as gift. Gift’s frame pattern and paintings are source of inspiration many carpet designers. Beautiful carpets are created and repeated by these plans.
In this design multi rips geometrical shaped frame was seen with flower, some- times two frames with one multi leaf rose flower and sometimes one cut line join with each other.
Deer antler with animal layout
Deer multi meandering and curve antler are base main of formation deer antler layout design. In context of these design, flowers designing with leaf and bud are limited by pattern that it is similar to deer multi meandering and cure antler.
Designed flowers are put up in all over context carpet alternatively as symmetrical. In deer antler with animal layout design there are small animals like stag and deer in everywhere context carpet and side of flower. Margins of these patterns often decorate with winding lines and niceness Arabesque that cover with tiny flowers.
Alter shape inspired carpet designers for create this design. Carpets that are woven with archway usually don’t have hunting scene because in their design is tried to induced holly pray alter to viewer and with trees and flowers associate, Promised paradise in views of viewer. alter design on base decoration is used archway supported columns or is hanged condyle archway of alter, Archway, arc, trees and flower vase for context decoration divided respectively with column alter, condyle, tree, flower vase.
Alter design is more current in Qom, Kashan, Isfahan and Balochi weavers.
If context carpet decorate with ribbons with equal width and different color divided to small patterns so that carpet context seems striped. This design’s name is Moharamat.
some of people call Ghalamdani to this design in several regions: Kurdistan, Tabriz and Qom’s weavers more pay attention to this design.
In Afshan design, there are not current frame for separation patterns. There are not Lachak,Toranj and layout. Design formation parts are put up dispersed but with regular space.
Afshan design based on use divided different kinds they are Arabesque Afshan, Khatayi afshan, layout Afshan, shah Abbasi Afshan, ………
Character design and historic works
Basic shape of these designs as its name suggestion form with scene of Abniyeh and pictures of famous character.
kings legendary pictures, ancient gladiator, world political character, ancient buildings like Perspolis and ………. These designs draw in carpet pattern.
The elements that make this design (rose with regular five rose leaf until eight leaf as bouquet) repeat all over of carpet context.
Sometimes Golfarang is designed with inside of flower vase and sometimes is designed without flower vase, Bijar Golfarang, with Toranj, bracelet, bouquet, Mostofi and …….. are kinds of these designs.
Mostofi word had been a nick name that Ghajar’s kings give to their sectaries and agents.
Weaving this design are common in Arak, Tabriz and Birjar, this design’s name come back to Mustofi that lived in Ghajar age. He ordered this design. Base of this design was formed with ovals in Golfarang synthetic and decoration branches. Sometimes Arabesque lines use for more decoration bouquet so that connect bouquet Farang with each other.
Lachak Golfarang and Toranj
In this design around the central Toranj often surrounded with bouquet of rose and Golfarang flower vase.
difference pattern completed and color of lachaks of design and context create oval space that middle Toranj show off in it. Large borders in this design more or less reflect patterns and color of main context carpet.
In this kind of designs, patterns were taken from other reign’s weaving carpet that these reigns are close to Iran and these had been part of Iranian soil in many years ago like Turkey, Caucasus, Afghanistan …….. and are used with some changing.
Plan of these design were borrowed from traditional Caucasus plans current it is kind of tribe weave mental mugs and very common in East north of Iran, this design was produced in Turkman reign.
Patterns of these design are full of five leaf and eight leaf (Golfarang) and similar to French Goblans.
Usually context of these designs are plain and main border always don’t follow of straight lines. This design was woven in Ravar Kirman for first time.
Artists create wonderful pattern with inspiration of different patterns and mix rhythmical patterns with each other, these design’s name is mixed design.
These designs don’t follow especial patterns or color, chose those depend on taste designer and painting so that sometimes bud Jaghe, Golfarang, frame, tablet and flower vase designs come together in one carpet.
Mixed designs have various kinds that those are with Toranj screw branch, with Toranj mountain range, Lachak Toranj flower vase, Arabesque layout, bouquet Toranji, toranj plain context, ……….
The most ancient Iranian carpet
The most ancient world carpet
Pazyryk with 2500 years old, in the1328h (1949 EC) Sergei Rudenko discovered it in Sibria in Scythian kings grave because of it look like Perpolis embossed pattern, he assumed it to be belongs Iran.
Raw material: dimension wool: 1 meter and 98 centimeter in one meter and 89 centimeter.
Pattern: riders, stag is grazing, legendary animal with lion body and eagle head with border with flower.
The more large world carpet
- Hand woven Nishapur’s carpet in Abu Dhabi sheikh Zayed mosque, 1200 Nishapur’s women weavers had weaved for 18 months.
Raw material: 38 ton the most qualitative fibers from Sirjan and New Zealand’s wool – two billion and three hundred million knots.
Dimension: 132 meter length and 42-48 meter width (six thousand square meter)
- Mucat city mosque carpet that was ordered by Qaboos sultan Oman’s king with 500 weavers and 12 million work hours with 4343 square meter area.
The more expensive carpet in the world
- Kirman Veiss mug belongs to 16th century, it valued 10 million $, it was sold over 20 times of suggestion cost in the 2010EC.
- Isfahan silk carpet belongs to 16th century it valued four million and 450 thousand $.
- Other silk carpet comes back to Safavid age belongs to 400 years ago, it valued 4 million $.
- Tabriz carpet belongs to 16th century, it valued about 2 million and 400 thousands $.
Keeping carpet method and Iranian weaving carpet regions
New carpet: flatten the carpet on metal grid network and hit back of carpet with stick.
Old carpet: hand dripping forbidden for old carpet.
Use soft brush and vacuum cleaner (keeping suitable space between head of vacuum and carpet surface).
Old machine: with especial machine brushes brush carpet rug then with cylindrical axles with plastic ribbons or tarpaulin hit continuous on back of carpet.
New machine: look like large washing machine that exit dust from carpet with circular movement.
- Washing dark parts and dirty carpet by washing carpet machine large brushes
- Releasing carpet in large pool for exiting detergents
- Putting carpet in machine like Centrifuge for exiting water
- Drying carpet in environment or in heater
The more Important points for washing carpet
- Washing on hard surface (like mosaic and stone)
- Using shower for wetting carpet
- Detergents must be neutral (intense acid or basic environment damage carpet) use detergent powders make dried fibers, broken and causing it to rot.
- Because of unfixed some carpet color, putting carpet in pool with especial material until fixed carpet color
- After use traditional material for washing carpet must be rinse the carpet with care, because of influence impurify material damage carpet
- For rinse if there is not machine can rinse with brush or shovel (don’t do more pressure for old mugs)
- For drying carpet in environment flatten completely because pipe or fold causing cassie carpet and rot in that part of carpet.
- For drying carpet with unfixed color don’t hang it because:
A: remain of water move down therefor move down unfixed colors.
B: more pressure to poly carpet may be tear that.
- Carpet’s water waste must be clean completely after rinse.
- If carpet is basic (more utilize basic material in coloring) can add some water and acid 1%-2% that can make neutral that.
- Don’t put carpet in front of sunshine because causing uncolored mug.
- Don’t use home detergent for washing mug. If there is not a carpet washing work shop in close of you, can use baby shampoo for washing mug because it is suitable.
- For remove color can use Hydro sulfite with low Molarity. Some material like Caustic Soda, two-Soda or other basic materials can have bad effect on carpet fibers, reduce quality and damage carpet.
Washing carpet with drug
For showing old one carpet that is new
- New and recently woven carpets can wash with drug.
- Carpet have been put in pool with especial material (like Chloro-Hydro with a little detergent) for period of time then rinse until remove one layered of color fibers.
- With using especial machine rub carpet, it’s white root become dark with walnut shell or pomegranate shell.
- Some people putting carpet in front of sunshine for long time.
- Provide carpet that is suitable for room size. Fold extra part of mug cause crack and damage (for example 2.5×3.5 space use carpet with 2×3 dimension).
- Don’t flatten carpet on lime or gypsum floor. Cover cracks of floor because cracks are suitable for living insect like moth.
- Don’t flatten carpet on Mucket and plastic floor covering, mucket fibers in close to carpet is good place for living insect.
- If use several board carpets, can flatten them that these are not overlapping because causes cassie in period of time.
- Never hang up silk carpet on gypsum wall because it causes to rot. rub silk and gypsum with each other damage carpet.
- Don’t put heavy things like furniture and table on carpet. For this use especial under base.
- Moving carpet in it’s place after period of time because don’t rub some parts of carpet under foot.
- Often put carpet on environment and put back of carpet in front of sunshine, because back of carpet is suitable place for growing moth, white ant, kinds of fungus and mildew living.
- Some kind of light is harmful for carpet, for example silk fibers because of having protein damage in front of
- In dusting and cleaning time open doors and windows for exit dust and don’t sitting dust on carpet.
- Don’t sweep carpet with wetted sweep because after period of time remain dust like thinness layered of lute between rugs.
- Humidity place are not suitable for keeping mugs or covered with carpet. Humid causes grow mildew and make rotten carpet. Recommended changing carpet after 3 or 6 years.
- Back of valuable carpet that hang up on wall as tableau must be check because of moth and white ant, dusting with soft brushes.
- For hanging up carpet on wall don’t use nail, sharp pin:
A: use frames that have space between wall and frame.
B: use especial clips.
C: putting carpet between two glasses (don’t do pressure on rugs).
- Repair damaged part of carpet as soon as you can, because don’t expand damaged part.
- For keeping carpet in storehouse pipe it and put Naphthaline or tabacco in among of it, roll in antiseptic cotton fabric, fasten with rope.